Cognitive perceptual training is used to improve children cognitive (attention,concentration,memory, organisation skills, decision making skills and problem solving skills) skills and perceptual skills (spatial orientation, visual discrimination, figure ground perception, depth perception, colour perception, size and shape perception, body scheme, right left discrimination,praxis) which is necessary for academic learning as well as social learning through cognitive retraining and perceptual training.
Cognitive retraining is a therapeutic strategy that seeks to improve or restore children skills in the areas of paying attention, remembering, organizing, reasoning and understanding, problem-solving, decision making, and higher level cognitive abilities. These skills are all interrelated.
TYPES OF COGNITIVE RETRAINING
Attention and concentration retraining:
This type of cognitive retraining aims to improve several abilities, including focusing attention; dividing attention; maintaining attention while reducing the effects of boredom and fatigue, and resisting distraction. Attention has been considered the foundation of other more complicated cognitive skills, and therefore an important skill for cognitive retraining. This area of cognitive retraining has been widely researched, and has been shown to improve children abilities in various tasks related to attention.
Memory retraining involves teaching the children several strategies that can be used to recall certain types of information. For example, rhymes may be used as a memory aid. A series of numbers, such as a phone number with an area code, may be broken down into smaller groups. A person may be taught to go through each letter of the alphabet until he or she remembers someone's name.
Organizational skills retraining:
This approach is used when the children has difficulty keeping track of or finding items, doing tasks in a set order, and/or doing something in a timely manner. Strategies may include having one identified place for an item ("a place for everything and everything in its place"). In addition, the children can be taught to keep the items that are used most frequently closer to him or her (the front or the lower shelves of a cabinet, drawer, closet, or desk, for example). Items that are often used together (such as comb and brush, toothbrush and toothpaste) are placed beside each other. Items may be put into categories. These strategies help individuals function better in their home or school setting.
Reasoning refers to the ability to connect and organize information in a logical, rational way. Reasoning retraining techniques include: listing the facts or reality of a situation; excluding irrelevant facts or details; putting the steps to solve a problem in a logical order; and avoiding irrational thinking, such as jumping to conclusions based on incomplete information, or focusing on the negative aspects of the situation and ignoring the positive. When the person can connect relevant information in a logical way, they are better able to understand or comprehend it.
Problem-solving retraining aims to help children define a problem; come up with possible solutions to it; discuss the solution(s) with others and listen to their advice; review the various possible solutions from many perspectives; and evaluate whether the problem was solved after going through these steps. This sequence may be repeated several times until the problem is solved. This process is referred to as "SOLVE," from the first letter of the name of each step: Specify; Options; Listen; Vary; and Evaluate. The "SOLVE" technique is more appropriate for use with individuals at a higher level of functioning.
Decision-making retraining is used when a person must choose among a number of options. The goal of this retraining is to help him or her consider the decision thoroughly before taking any action. The considerations may range from such practical matters as money, people, rules and policies, to personality issues.
Executive skills retraining refers to teaching individuals how to monitor themselves, control their thinking and actions, think in advance, set goals, manage time, act in socially acceptable ways, and transfer skills to new situations. These are higher-level cognitive skills. Charts and videotapes may be used to monitor behavior, and a variety of questions, tasks, and games may be used in retraining these skills.
Visual perceptual training is a psychoeducational intervention that focuses on perceptual dysfunctions that are claimed to contribute to delay in speech/language development and handwriting difficulties in school children.
Visual perception is the ability to take in visual input, organize it, and interpret it. It is important for a multitude of functional tasks such as putting together puzzles, building with legos, finding objects in drawers, writing, reading, and math. We work to develop the foundational visual perceptual skills and also use compensatory techniques in order to maximize your child’s abilities.
Visual perception training programs involve an "integrated program involving speech and language activities, a wide range of sensory modalities and visual-motor perceptual activities". These activities include motor rhythm activities, body image training, as well as training in spatial and directional relationships. "Suggested activities are grouped under five main headings: coordination of eye-motor movements, distinguishing foreground from background, visual memory, spatial position and relationship to space ... Included in the activities are speech, language and visual-motor perceptual tasks that involve use of all senses."
Although vision perception training may include some exercises similar to vision therapy exercises, visual perceptual training should be distinguished from optometric vision therapy. Visual perceptual training is directed toward perceptual dysfunctions that allegedly affect language and learning abilities, whereas vision therapy is a set of exercises directed toward specific deficiencies in the movements and/or focusing of the eye (e.g., strabismus, convergence insufficiency, esophoria, disorders of accommodation, etc.). Patients receive vision therapy to treat visual disturbances that may theoretically cause developmental delays and learning disabilities, whereas patients may receive visual perception training to remedy developmental delays and learning disabilities without having any identified dysfunction of eye movements or focusing.
Children receive vision therapy from eye care professionals, whereas visual perceptual training is generally performed by occupational therapist.
WHO CAN BENEFIT FROM COGNITIVE PERCEPTUAL TRAINING?
- Learning disability
- Dyslexia (Difficulty in reading)
- Dysgraphia (difficulty in handwriting)
- Dyscalculia (difficulty in calculation)
- Mental retardation
- Downs syndrome
- Attention Deficit Disorder